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EVIDENCE BASE

At Grass 2 Milk company we have developed a product backed with the most stringent of evidence based, scientific backing. Please see our references below.

Cell based

Release of β-casomorphins 5 and 7 during simulated gastro-intestinal digestion of bovine β-casein variants and milk-based infant formulas - PubMed (nih.gov)

Polymorphism of bovine beta-casein and its potential effect on human health - PubMed (nih.gov)

Production of Cow's Milk Free from Beta-Casein A1 and Its Application in the Manufacturing of Specialized Foods for Early Infant Nutrition - PubMed (nih.gov)

β-casomorphin-7 alters μ-opioid receptor and dipeptidyl peptidase IV genes expression in children with atopic dermatitis - PubMed (nih.gov) – gene expression profiling on pbmc (macrophages) – mor gene upregulated and dpp4 downregulated on exposure to bcm7.

Physiology of opioid receptors in gut

Animal studies

Comparative Effects of Milk Containing A1 versus A2 β-Casein on Health, Growth and β-Casomorphin-7 Level in Plasma of Neonatal Dairy Calves - PubMed (nih.gov)

 

Oral Feeding of Cow Milk Containing A1 Variant of β Casein Induces Pulmonary Inflammation in Male Balb/c Mice - PubMed (nih.gov)

 

A casein variant in cow's milk is atherogenic - PubMed (nih.gov)

 

Comparative evaluation of cow β-casein variants (A1/A2) consumption on Th2-mediated inflammatory response in mouse gut - PubMed (nih.gov)

 

Dietary A1 β-casein affects gastrointestinal transit time, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity, and inflammatory status relative to A2 β-casein in Wistar rats - PubMed (nih.gov)

 

A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Impact of Bovine Milk Containing Different Beta-Casein Profiles on Gut Health of Ageing Mice - PubMed (nih.gov)

 

A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Impact of Bovine Milk Containing Different Beta-Casein Profiles on Gut Health of Ageing Mice - PubMed (nih.gov) – proteins in milks also vary by casein type

Human nonclinical

In vivo endogenous proteolysis yielding beta-casein derived bioactive beta-casomorphin peptides in human breast milk for infant nutrition - PubMed (nih.gov)

 

Sequential release of milk protein–derived bioactive peptides in the jejunum in healthy humans | The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Oxford Academic (oup.com)

 

Role of Milk-Derived Opioid Peptides and Proline Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 in Autism Spectrum Disorders - PubMed (nih.gov) – shows that bcm-7 found in blood

 

Role of food-derived opioid peptides in the central nervous and gastrointestinal systems - PubMed (nih.gov)

 

The exogenous opioid peptides and DPPIV serum activity in infants with apnoea expressed as apparent life threatening events (ALTE) - PubMed (nih.gov) – SIDS , low ddp4, higher levels of bcm7 and then opoid induced resp depression

 

Immunoreactive beta-casomorphin-8 in cerebrospinal fluid from pregnant and lactating women: correlation with plasma levels - PubMed (nih.gov)

 

CSF and plasma beta-casomorphin-like opioid peptides in postpartum psychosis - PubMed (nih.gov)

 

Food-derived opioid peptides inhibit cysteine uptake with redox and epigenetic consequences - PubMed (nih.gov)

 

Epigenetic effects of casein-derived opioid peptides in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells - PubMed (nih.gov)

 

Differential neurogenic effects of casein-derived opioid peptides on neuronal stem cells: implications for redox-based epigenetic changes - PubMed (nih.gov)

 

Role of Milk-Derived Opioid Peptides and Proline Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 in Autism Spectrum Disorders (nih.gov)

Clinical studies

Clinical evaluation of glutathione concentrations after consumption of milk containing different subtypes of β-casein: results from a randomized, cross-over clinical trial | Nutrition Journal | Full Text (biomedcentral.com)

 

Effects of milk containing only A2 beta casein versus milk containing both A1 and A2 beta casein proteins on gastrointestinal physiology, symptoms of discomfort, and cognitive behavior of people with self-reported intolerance to traditional cows' milk - PubMed (nih.gov)

 

Comparative effects of A1 versus A2 beta-casein on gastrointestinal measures: a blinded randomised cross-over pilot study - PubMed (nih.gov)

 

Comparison of the impact of bovine milk β-casein variants on digestive comfort in females self-reporting dairy intolerance: a randomized controlled trial - PubMed (nih.gov) - Comparison of the impact of bovine milk β-casein variants on digestive comfort in females self-reporting dairy intolerance: a randomized controlled trial | The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Oxford Academic (oup.com)

 

Milk Containing A2 β-Casein ONLY, as a Single Meal, Causes Fewer Symptoms of Lactose Intolerance than Milk Containing A1 and A2 β-Caseins in Subjects with Lactose Maldigestion and Intolerance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial - PubMed (nih.gov) - Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Milk Containing A2 β-Casein ONLY, as a Single Meal, Causes Fewer Symptoms of Lactose Intolerance than Milk Containing A1 and A2 β-Caseins in Subjects with Lactose Maldigestion and Intolerance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial (mdpi.com)

 

Effects of cow's milk beta-casein variants on symptoms of milk intolerance in Chinese adults: a multicentre, randomised controlled study - PubMed (nih.gov) - Effects of cow’s milk beta-casein variants on symptoms of milk intolerance in Chinese adults: a multicentre, randomised controlled study | Nutrition Journal | Full Text (biomedcentral.com)

Review

Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose (nih.gov)

Systematic Review of the Gastrointestinal Effects of A1 Compared with A2 β-Casein - PubMed (nih.gov)

β-Casomorphin: A complete health perspective - PubMed (nih.gov)

Occurrence, biological properties and potential effects on human health of β-casomorphin 7: Current knowledge and concerns: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition: Vol 60, No 21 (tandfonline.com)

 

Review of the potential health impact of β‐casomorphins and related peptides (wiley.com) – efsa review

 

https://www.ift.org/news-and-publications/food-technology-magazine/issues/2018/december/columns/food-medicine-and-health-a1-a2-milk-and-beta-casomorphins

Casomorphin studies

Casomorphin - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

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